Ethics in the research in health: progresses and challenges
Jovelina Nunes da SilvaI, Kênia Cristina Lopes AbrãoII, Eberson da Silva Rodrigues do NascimentoIII
I Hospital Clinical Psychologist. Family Therapist. Student at the Post Graduation – Master Degree – in Health Sciences of the Federal University of Goiás – Goiânia E-mail email@example.com
II Social Assistant. Student in Social Policy Specialization Course and Family Holistic Attendance – UVA/RJ. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
III Medicine Doctor. Volunteer of the Service of Neurology at the Neurosciences Service of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás. E-mail: email@example.com
This book is resulted of II Workshop - Invigoration and Ethical Training in Research for Programs of Postgraduate in Sciences of the Health and Tropical Medicine, accomplished on May 28 – 31, 2006, in the University of Brasília. The event was gone back to postgraduate students in sciences of the health and tropical medicine, guiding teachers and representatives of committees of ethics of universities. His content adds knowledge gone back to the human rights, especially to the people and vulnerable communities, as in the case of bearers of the virus HIV and others. The editors approach the posture adopted by researchers during the procedure of the studies getting attention on the part of the investigators of members of ethics committees in research and of people inserted in teaching and researches institutions.
Ethics in the research in health: progresses and challenges are divided in three parts and stimulate debates and reflections with relationship to the research that involves human and no-humans beings. It has as starting point the promulgation of the Code of Nurembergue, the Declaration of Helsinque and, in Brazil, the Resolution 196/96 whose focus is the respect to the human being, promoting his well-being physical, moral and psychic.
The first part, Ethics in Research - Studies with Intervention, contains three thematic. In the first, Clinical Rehearsals: ethical reflections, the authors approach the linkage between methodology and ethical aspects requested in the accomplishment of clinical researches. They also detach the importance of the balance among the knowledge generated by the research, the possibility of her application and the protection to the participants and emphasize the need of the posture change, the development of new interventions therapeutic diagnostics or prophylactics, making possible the construction of new scenery characterized by the solidarity and altruism.
On the second thematic, The ethic in a placebo-controlled studies, treats of a important thematic when is discussed ethics in research that involves human beings that refers to the accomplishment of studies that use controlled groups by placebo, attitude foreseen so much in the Declaration of Helsinque as in the Resolution 196/96. The text is concluded with the recognition on the important paper that the system CEP/CONEP assumes in the regulation of studies placebo - controlled at the country.
The yanomami blood: a challenge for the ethics in the research is the third thematic approached. It propitiates a reflection about the investigations accomplished with indigenous populations, telling an expedition that happened in the end of the years 1960 to the yanomamis lands, where, they were collected about 12. 000 samples of blood that are stocks in American universities. The yanomami case opens a wide discussion about the scientific research regarding the process of obtaining of the term of free and clarify consent, the payment for the participation in the research and the use of popularization of research data considered secret for the studied population, the disregard on the part of the researchers, of relative cultural aspects to the value that the blood assumes in the yanomami population; the collection, sending and storage of biological material for countries that financed the investigation.
In the second it leaves, Ethics in the research - studies without intervention, the reader will find rich material regarding the Qualitative research in health: ethical implications where the authors bring reflections about the qualitative studies in the area of health, once they favor the understanding of the human behaviors related to the process health-disease. They use the theoretical-methodological currents of the phenomenology and ethnography to develop the analyses of possible ethical obstacles. In the thematic ethics in Biomedical and anthropological Research: likeness, contributions, complementary, the author provokes reflection about the meaning of the expression: ethical in research involving human beings. The article Observation of the behavior: ethical subjects, is addressed to the analysis of the ethical dilemmas many times present in the researches of health that take as reference the humanities science. The thematic Ethics in research and epidemiologic studies, weaves considerations about the confluence between the areas of the ethics and of the epidemiology. Are approached the observational studies, the scientific rigidity, the obtaining of the free and clarify consent, as well as adoption of the beginnings of the autonomy, charity, non charity and justice to provide the participants' protection.
The third and last part works the Ethical aspects of the experimentation with no-humans animals, in which the authors detach the medical progresses happened in the last decades through the biomedical researches with no humans animals and the relevance of those discovered for the humanity.
Although exist groups contrary to the experimentation with non humans animals, the authors show that the moral and ethical justification of those experiments is important for the improvement of the life quality and of the human health.
The authors put in prominence that now is adopted the principle begin of three Rs. : 1. reduction, 2. substitution, 3. refinement, in the researches with non humans animals and point out the importance in approving a law, in Brazil, that regulates the research with these animals and the need communication between scientific community and the society about the importance of these studies for the humanity.
It is treated of a work with clear and objective style, with a fast reading for the expectation of reaching the end. This book is recommended to the professionals, researchers, postgraduate students in sciences of the health, teachers, advisors and representatives of ethics committees, but also is recommended to the people that are interested in enlarging knowledge about researches involving human beings.
Artigo recebido em 26.07.07
Aprovado para publicação em 27.08.07
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